We should be concerned about the sustainability of global fisheries. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture (FAO), 52% of the 600 marine fish stocks they monitor are fully exploited, meaning fisheries are operating at or close to an optimal yield level with no expected room for further expansion.16 Seventeen percent are overexploited, meaning that fish are being harvested in an unstainable fashion, seven percent are depleted, and one percent are recovering from depletion.16 Further, only three percent of the world’s oceans and seas are considered marine protected areas.17 18

Fortunately, efforts are being made to make global fishing sustainable by organizations such as the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, the Alaska Seafood Marketing Institute, and the Marine Stewardship Council. 17 19 20 21 22 Novel methods, such as “Eco-Harvesting,” are being utilized to spare higher trophic-level species while capturing lower-trophic level species such as krill which reproduce more readily and therefore may have a lower risk of causing significant environmental impacts when utilized to produce marine oil supplements.23 Even so, as krill are a keystone species in the Southern Ocean ecosystem, a significant reduction in their population could lead to an overabundance of zooplankton, which krill feed on, and impact the whales, seals, penguins, squid, and various fish that rely on them as a food source.24

Additionally, the supplement industry is capitalizing on producing omega-3 supplements from microalgae which may prove to be a sustainable alternative to fisheries as the algae can be produced photosynthetically in a controlled environment without the need for perpetual harvesting or energy input.25 26 27

 

References

*There are more references here than what it used in the article. This article was extracted from a longer piece I wrote for a school assignment. Please bear with the extra references. Thank you :-).

  1. Nuts, almond butter, plain, with salt added Nutrition Facts & Calories. http://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/nut-and-seed-products/3183/2. Accessed October 10, 2017.
  2. CRON-O-Meter: Track nutrition & count calories. https://cronometer.com/. Accessed October 10, 2017.
  3. Essential Fatty Acids. Linus Pauling Institute. http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/other-nutrients/essential-fatty-acids. Published April 28, 2014. Accessed October 10, 2017.
  4. Office of Dietary Supplements – Vitamin E. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminE-HealthProfessional/. Accessed October 10, 2017.
  5. Manganese. Linus Pauling Institute. http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/minerals/manganese. Published April 23, 2014. Accessed October 10, 2017.
  6. Hwang AB, Jeong D-E, Lee S-J. Mitochondria and Organismal Longevity. Curr Genomics. 2012;13(7):519-532. doi:10.2174/138920212803251427.
  7. Omega-6 fatty acids | University of Maryland Medical Center. http://www.umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/omega6-fatty-acids. Accessed October 10, 2017.
  8. Luo Y, Xie W, Luo F. Effect of several germination treatments on phosphatases activities and degradation of phytate in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and azuki bean (Vigna angularis L.). J Food Sci. 2012;77(10):C1023-1029. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02733.x.
  9. 10 Antinutrients to Get Out of Your Diet Immediately. Dr. Axe. https://draxe.com/antinutrients/. Published July 30, 2015. Accessed October 10, 2017.
  10. Ponte PIP, Alves SP, Bessa RJB, et al. Influence of Pasture Intake on the Fatty Acid Composition, and Cholesterol, Tocopherols, and Tocotrienols Content in Meat from Free-Range Broilers. Poult Sci. 2008;87(1):80-88. doi:10.3382/ps.2007-00148.
  11. Ponnampalam EN, Mann NJ, Sinclair AJ. Effect of feeding systems on omega-3 fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and trans fatty acids in Australian beef cuts: potential impact on human health. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2006;15(1):21-29.
  12. Daley CA, Abbott A, Doyle PS, Nader GA, Larson S. A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef. Nutr J. 2010;9:10. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-10.
  13. Leheska JM, Thompson LD, Howe JC, et al. Effects of conventional and grass-feeding systems on the nutrient composition of beef. J Anim Sci. 2008;86(12):3575-3585. doi:10.2527/jas.2007-0565.
  14. Dhiman TR, Anand GR, Satter LD, Pariza MW. Conjugated linoleic acid content of milk from cows fed different diets. J Dairy Sci. 1999;82(10):2146-2156. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(99)75458-5.
  15. Hebeisen DF, Hoeflin F, Reusch HP, Junker E, Lauterburg BH. Increased concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids in milk and platelet rich plasma of grass-fed cows. Int J Vitam Nutr Res Int Z Vitam- Ernahrungsforschung J Int Vitaminol Nutr. 1993;63(3):229-233.
  16. stocks.pdf. http://www.fao.org/newsroom/common/ecg/1000505/en/stocks.pdf. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  17. Overfishing: a threat to marine biodiversity. http://www.un.org/events/tenstories/06/story.asp?storyID=800. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  18. Atlas of Marine Protection. http://www.mpatlas.org/map/mpas/.
  19. Towards sustainability in world fisheries.
  20. Home Page | CCAMLR. https://www.ccamlr.org/. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  21. Sustainability. Alaska Seafood. http://www.alaskaseafood.org/sustainability/. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  22. Sustainability – Vital Choice Wild Seafood & Organics. https://www.vitalchoice.com/content/sustainability?utm_referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2F. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  23. Eco Harvesting. http://www.cleanmarinekrill.co.uk/eco-harvesting. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  24. Krill Fisheries and Sustainability. https://www.ccamlr.org/en/fisheries/krill-fisheries-and-sustainability.
  25. Anzilotti E, Anzilotti E, Anzilotti E. The Supplement Industry Is Devastating The Environment–Can Algae Fix It? Fast Company. https://www.fastcompany.com/40425399/the-supplement-industry-is-devastating-the-environment-can-algae-fix-it. Published June 1, 2017. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  26. Adarme-Vega TC, Lim DKY, Timmins M, Vernen F, Li Y, Schenk PM. Microalgal biofactories: a promising approach towards sustainable omega-3 fatty acid production. Microb Cell Factories. 2012;11:96. doi:10.1186/1475-2859-11-96.
  27. Ji X-J, Ren L-J, Huang H. Omega-3 Biotechnology: A Green and Sustainable Process for Omega-3 Fatty Acids Production. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2015;3. doi:10.3389/fbioe.2015.00158.
  28. Swanson D, Block R, Mousa SA. Omega-3 Fatty Acids EPA and DHA: Health Benefits Throughout Life. Adv Nutr Int Rev J. 2012;3(1):1-7. doi:10.3945/an.111.000893.
  29. Avoiding Mercury in Fish-Topic Overview. WebMD. https://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/tc/avoiding-mercury-in-fish-topic-overview. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  30. Ulven SM, Kirkhus B, Lamglait A, et al. Metabolic effects of krill oil are essentially similar to those of fish oil but at lower dose of EPA and DHA, in healthy volunteers. Lipids. 2011;46(1):37-46. doi:10.1007/s11745-010-3490-4.
  31. Arterburn LM, Oken HA, Bailey Hall E, Hamersley J, Kuratko CN, Hoffman JP. Algal-oil capsules and cooked salmon: nutritionally equivalent sources of docosahexaenoic acid. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(7):1204-1209. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2008.04.020.
  32. Brossard N, Croset M, Pachiaudi C, Riou JP, Tayot JL, Lagarde M. Retroconversion and metabolism of [13C]22:6n-3 in humans and rats after intake of a single dose of [13C]22:6n-3-triacylglycerols. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;64(4):577-586.
  33. Extraction of algal oil – Hexane Solvent , Soxhlet extraction – Oilgae – Oil from Algae. http://www.oilgae.com/algae/oil/extract/che/che.html. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  34. Algae Oil Extraction – Expeller press, Ultrasonic extraction – Oilgae – Oil from Algae. http://www.oilgae.com/algae/oil/extract/mec/mec.html. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  35. Research shows eggs from pastured chickens may be more nutritious | Penn State University. http://news.psu.edu/story/166143/2010/07/20/research-shows-eggs-pastured-chickens-may-be-more-nutritious. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  36. Office of Dietary Supplements – Omega-3 Fatty Acids. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Omega3FattyAcids-HealthProfessional/. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  37. Alpha-linolenic acid. University of Maryland Medical Center. https://www.umm.edu/layouts/UMM/Umbrella%20Site%20Three%20Column.aspx. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  38. Omega-3 and -6 Fatty Acids. http://www.questdiagnostics.com/testcenter/testguide.action?dc=TS_Omega_3_6. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  39. Dose Response for Omega-3 Supplementation. GrassrootsHealth. https://grassrootshealth.net/document/dose-response-omega-3-supplementation/. Accessed October 15, 2017.

Facebook Comments

comments