Key Concepts

  • Omega-3 Fats are essential to our health and must be obtained by diet or supplement
  • ALA – Plant Source
  • EPA and DHA – Animal/fish/algal source
  • ALA is poorly converted to EPA and DHA – EPA and DHA play crucial roles in our body
  • Vegans/Vegetarians can supplement with an Algal Oil Omega-3 Supplement
  • Vital Choice Wild Seafood and Organics – low-mercury, sustainably-harvested fish and fish products
  • Krill OilCarlson’s Fish Oil
  • ALA (Plant Omega-3) EPA/DHA (Omega-3) Omega-6
    Men 1.6 grams 0.50 grams 8.4 grams
    Women 1.1 grams 0.50 grams 6.4 grams


Omega-3s are essential fatty acids and must be consumed regularly. Dietary sources come from nuts, seeds, cold water fish, eggs, wild game, and algae in the form of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). ALA comes from plant sources and EPA and DHA from animal and algal sources. Humans have the ability to convert ALA to EPA and DHA; however, the conversion rate tends to be low across the board: in healthy young men, studies have shown that about 8% of dietary ALA is converted to EPA and 0-4% to DHA; in healthy young women, about 21% of dietary ALA is converted to EPA and 9% to DHA.3 Because of the health benefits associated with adequate EPA and DHA consumption such as inflammation reduction, proper anticoagulation, and prevention of peripheral artery disease and major coronary events, their regular consumption appears justified.28

Omega-6s, linoleic acid (LA) are another type of polyunsaturated fatty acid. They are mentioned from time to time in this article.

Choosing Sources of EPA and DHA

Therefore, in addition to consuming foods which contain ALA, consuming those with DHA and EPA is likely a good choice as well. Unfortunately, a major source of DHA and EPA, cold-water fish, can contain high levels of mercury.29 Wild caught fish have been shown to contain less mercury than farm-raised fish and have higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids. Companies such as Vital Choice Wild Seafood company have wild-caught fish sourced from Alaska and the northwest Pacific which tend to have lower levels of contamination than other areas. Additionally, or instead, a supplement of either fish oil or krill oil can be utilized. Again, it is important to make sure that the supplements are not contributing to the toxic load of the body, so buying from an independently-certified brand by agencies such as The International Fish Oil Standards Program (IFOS) or the International Krill Oil Standards (IKOS) organization is wise. Krill oil contains an antioxidant called astaxanthin and has been shown to be more bioavailable than fish oil although both supplements confer similar benefits.30 Because krill can be obtained more sustainability and krill oil appears to have more benefits than fish oil, I would recommend it over fish oil.

Algal Oil – An Alternative for Vegetarians & Vegans

For vegetarians, vegans, and those concerned with the sustainability of our planet, check out algal oil. Algal-oil capsules have been shown to be a nutritionally-equivalent source to cooked salmon; after two weeks of 600 mg of DHA supplementation per day of algal oil, DHA levels increased by approximately 80 percent in plasma phospholipids and by approximately 25 percent in erythrocytes in participants. 31 Additionally, DHA can be retroconverted to EPA. A rat and human study which utilized microalgae as the DHA source showed that retroconversion of DHA to EPA was 7.4-13.8% with no significant difference between omnivores and vegetarians, indicating DHA supplementation as a potential alternative source of DHA and EPA.32

It has been difficult finding research on the quality of algal supplements. They can be processed mechanically or chemically, the chemicals including hexane, benzene, and other potential carcinogens.33 34. Be wary of this and look for chemical-free or hexane-free brands.

In comparing Deva algal oil with Carlson’s fish oil, here is what I found.

Brand Total Omega-3 EPA DHA Cost/Capsule
Deva Algal Oil 200 mg 60-80 mg 120-140 mg $0.28
Carlson’s Fish Oil 350 mg 180 mg 120 mg $0.13

So, if you take algal oil, you pay about twice as much to get about two times less the desired omega-3s. It is definitely not advantageous if you eat fish. And to get your recommended amount of DHA/EPA per day, you’d take three capsules of algal oil. With Carlson’s you’d just have to take two.


Furthermore, vegetarians can consume eggs. Pasture-raised eggs have been shown to have twice the total omega-3 fatty acids of eggs produced from commercial hens.35 I would therefore recommend pasture eggs over conventional.

According to, 6 medium boiled eggs contain only 200 mg of omega-3 fatty acids.


In terms of dosage, the 2010 Guidelines for Americans recommends two 4-ounce servings of seafood per week to provide an average of 250 mg per day of EPA and DHA.36  The Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada recommends 500 mg of EPA/DHA per day (51).

1.5 grams per day has been shown to lower the risk of sudden cardiac death.37 To determine an individuals need for omega-3 supplementation or response to increased consumption of omega-3 rich foods or supplements, a blood test can be utilized.38 39 This is a more precise way to determine the consumption and supplementation required on an individual basis. Omega-3 supplements are likely to be best tolerated and absorbed if taken with food.

Research indicates that an ideal ratio of omega-6 fatty acids to omega-3 fatty acids is 4:1. The ratio should not exceed this amount, and lower ratios, and even a 1:1 ratio, may provide even more health benefits (41, 42, 43).

ALA (Plant Omega-3) EPA/DHA (Omega-3) Omega-6
Men 1.6 grams 0.50 grams 8.4 grams
Women 1.1 grams 0.50 grams 6.4 grams

A daily dosage for EPA and DHA have not been established, although the adequate intake set for ALA is 1.6 grams for adult men and 1.1 grams for adult women (44).

Food Omega 6:3 Ratio Omega 6 Omega 3
Chia Seeds 0.32:1 1620 mg/oz (28 g) 4915 mg/oz (28 g)
Flax Seeds 0.26:1 606 mg/tbsp (10 g) 2338 mg/tbsp. (10 g)
Walnuts 4.2:1 1 g/oz (28 g) 2542 mg/oz (28 g)
Hemp Seeds 3.3:1 8g/oz (28 g) 2500 mg/oz (28 g)
Salmon .29:1 107 mg/oz (28 g) 368 mg/oz (28 g)


To keep these ratios in balance, it is pretty difficult with the standard American diet. For the average American, omega-6 to omega-3 ratio is between 12-25:1 (50). Vegetable oils, such as corn oil and canola oil, are full of omega-6 fatty acids.

I think a sensible approach to ensure you are getting adequate amounts of EPA and DHA along with ALA and not consuming excessive amounts of omega-6 fatty acids is to utilize oils such as coconut oil and olive oil while avoiding oils such as corn and canola, take an omega-3 supplement, eat healthy sources of fish if you are not vegetarian, favor seeds such as chia and flax which are higher in omega-3 fatty acids, and use other nuts/seeds, such as peanut butter, almond butter, cashews, etc… sparingly or moderately. They all have their own particular benefits, but consuming than in excess will likely promote inflammation in the body.


One of my goals in life is to not harm anything… I guess thats a good way of putting it lol. I don’t want to eat fish or promote its consumption. I provided an algal oil supplement link but I have still yet to find one that meets my rigorous standards. The supplement I provided has a really low concentration of EPA/DHA and isn’t going to be as well absorbed as fish oil. Its therefore far more expensive and perhaps lower quality.

I think algal will be my go-to omega-3 supplement in time once the manufacturing process gets better. This supplement I provided was the only one I found without carrageenan which has been linked to adverse health consequences (i.e. inflammation, glucose intolerance, and impaired insulin action) (40). I’m sure the one I provided is fine but I think in terms of quality the krill and fish oils are actually better. But, you must kill a fish to eat a fish (or swallow its precious oils). Maybe its not so bad… as Curt Cobain said, “It’s okay to eat fish, cuz they, don’t have any feelings…”



Image Source:

*There are more references here than what it used in the article. This article was extracted from a longer piece I wrote for a school assignment. Please bear with the extra references. Thank you :-).

  1. Nuts, almond butter, plain, with salt added Nutrition Facts & Calories. Accessed October 10, 2017.
  2. CRON-O-Meter: Track nutrition & count calories. Accessed October 10, 2017.
  3. Essential Fatty Acids. Linus Pauling Institute. Published April 28, 2014. Accessed October 10, 2017.
  4. Office of Dietary Supplements – Vitamin E. Accessed October 10, 2017.
  5. Manganese. Linus Pauling Institute. Published April 23, 2014. Accessed October 10, 2017.
  6. Hwang AB, Jeong D-E, Lee S-J. Mitochondria and Organismal Longevity. Curr Genomics. 2012;13(7):519-532. doi:10.2174/138920212803251427.
  7. Omega-6 fatty acids | University of Maryland Medical Center. Accessed October 10, 2017.
  8. Luo Y, Xie W, Luo F. Effect of several germination treatments on phosphatases activities and degradation of phytate in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and azuki bean (Vigna angularis L.). J Food Sci. 2012;77(10):C1023-1029. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02733.x.
  9. 10 Antinutrients to Get Out of Your Diet Immediately. Dr. Axe. Published July 30, 2015. Accessed October 10, 2017.
  10. Ponte PIP, Alves SP, Bessa RJB, et al. Influence of Pasture Intake on the Fatty Acid Composition, and Cholesterol, Tocopherols, and Tocotrienols Content in Meat from Free-Range Broilers. Poult Sci. 2008;87(1):80-88. doi:10.3382/ps.2007-00148.
  11. Ponnampalam EN, Mann NJ, Sinclair AJ. Effect of feeding systems on omega-3 fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and trans fatty acids in Australian beef cuts: potential impact on human health. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2006;15(1):21-29.
  12. Daley CA, Abbott A, Doyle PS, Nader GA, Larson S. A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef. Nutr J. 2010;9:10. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-10.
  13. Leheska JM, Thompson LD, Howe JC, et al. Effects of conventional and grass-feeding systems on the nutrient composition of beef. J Anim Sci. 2008;86(12):3575-3585. doi:10.2527/jas.2007-0565.
  14. Dhiman TR, Anand GR, Satter LD, Pariza MW. Conjugated linoleic acid content of milk from cows fed different diets. J Dairy Sci. 1999;82(10):2146-2156. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(99)75458-5.
  15. Hebeisen DF, Hoeflin F, Reusch HP, Junker E, Lauterburg BH. Increased concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids in milk and platelet rich plasma of grass-fed cows. Int J Vitam Nutr Res Int Z Vitam- Ernahrungsforschung J Int Vitaminol Nutr. 1993;63(3):229-233.
  16. stocks.pdf. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  17. Overfishing: a threat to marine biodiversity. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  18. Atlas of Marine Protection.
  19. Towards sustainability in world fisheries.
  20. Home Page | CCAMLR. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  21. Sustainability. Alaska Seafood. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  22. Sustainability – Vital Choice Wild Seafood & Organics. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  23. Eco Harvesting. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  24. Krill Fisheries and Sustainability.
  25. Anzilotti E, Anzilotti E, Anzilotti E. The Supplement Industry Is Devastating The Environment–Can Algae Fix It? Fast Company. Published June 1, 2017. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  26. Adarme-Vega TC, Lim DKY, Timmins M, Vernen F, Li Y, Schenk PM. Microalgal biofactories: a promising approach towards sustainable omega-3 fatty acid production. Microb Cell Factories. 2012;11:96. doi:10.1186/1475-2859-11-96.
  27. Ji X-J, Ren L-J, Huang H. Omega-3 Biotechnology: A Green and Sustainable Process for Omega-3 Fatty Acids Production. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2015;3. doi:10.3389/fbioe.2015.00158.
  28. Swanson D, Block R, Mousa SA. Omega-3 Fatty Acids EPA and DHA: Health Benefits Throughout Life. Adv Nutr Int Rev J. 2012;3(1):1-7. doi:10.3945/an.111.000893.
  29. Avoiding Mercury in Fish-Topic Overview. WebMD. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  30. Ulven SM, Kirkhus B, Lamglait A, et al. Metabolic effects of krill oil are essentially similar to those of fish oil but at lower dose of EPA and DHA, in healthy volunteers. Lipids. 2011;46(1):37-46. doi:10.1007/s11745-010-3490-4.
  31. Arterburn LM, Oken HA, Bailey Hall E, Hamersley J, Kuratko CN, Hoffman JP. Algal-oil capsules and cooked salmon: nutritionally equivalent sources of docosahexaenoic acid. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(7):1204-1209. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2008.04.020.
  32. Brossard N, Croset M, Pachiaudi C, Riou JP, Tayot JL, Lagarde M. Retroconversion and metabolism of [13C]22:6n-3 in humans and rats after intake of a single dose of [13C]22:6n-3-triacylglycerols. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;64(4):577-586.
  33. Extraction of algal oil – Hexane Solvent , Soxhlet extraction – Oilgae – Oil from Algae. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  34. Algae Oil Extraction – Expeller press, Ultrasonic extraction – Oilgae – Oil from Algae. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  35. Research shows eggs from pastured chickens may be more nutritious | Penn State University. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  36. Office of Dietary Supplements – Omega-3 Fatty Acids. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  37. Alpha-linolenic acid. University of Maryland Medical Center. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  38. Omega-3 and -6 Fatty Acids. Accessed October 15, 2017.
  39. Dose Response for Omega-3 Supplementation. GrassrootsHealth. Accessed October 15, 2017.

Facebook Comments