- AI – 2.3 mg/day (men); 1.8 mg/day (women)
- UL – 11 mg/day
- Food Sources: whole grains, legumes, nuts, coffee, tea, spinach, pineapple
Adequate Intake (AI)
The AI for manganese if 2.3 mg/day for men and 1.8 mg/day for women.
Manganese is important for the function of metallorptoeins. These include superoxide dismutase, xanthine oxidase, arginase, glutamine syntehtase, and prolidase. Superoxide dismutase is the primary antioxidant system found in the mitochondria. Mitochondria are very susceptible to oxidative damage because they consume a lot of oxygen. As superoxide radicals are produced in the mitochondria, superoxide dismutase catalyzes their neutralization so that they cannot cause damage. Xanthinine oxidase is involved in the breakdown of purines and pyrimidines. Arginase is an enzyme involved in the urea cycle (excreting toxic ammonia from the body via urine). Glutamine synthetase converts glutamate to glutamine. And prolidase is involved in soft tissue synthesis and structure which is important in the health of bones, ligaments, joints, and tendons.
Between nine and sixteen percent of manganese is absorbed in the small intestine. Manganese is most concentrated in the mitochondria. Twenty-five percent of manganese in the body is stored in the bone.
There are no known clinical issues associated with manganese deficiency. Manganese deficiency may cause connective tissue and bone issues. Manganese deficiency is correlated with seizures and type-2 diabetes.
Toxicity/Excess/Upper Intake Level (UL)
The UL is set at 11 mg/day. There are no known health challenges occurring from dietary intake of manganese. Manganese is often used in toxic compounds such as pesticides, herbicides, and insecticides. it is not fully understood if manganese and these compounds play a role in compromising the central nervous system and causing symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease; this connection is being explored.
- Pineapple, raw – ½ cup, chunks – 0.77 mg
- Pecans – 1 ounce (19 halves) – 1.28 mg
- Almonds – 1 ounce (23 whole kernels) – 0.65 mg
- Brown rice, cooked – ½ cup – 1.07 mg
- Pinto beans, cooked – ½ cup – 0.39 mg
- Spinach, cooked – ½ cup – 0.84 mg
- Sweet potato, cooked – ½ cup, mashed – 0.44 mg
- Tea (green) – 1 cup (8 ounces) – 0.41-1.58